Diabetes: An Overview
If you have Diabetes, your body isn’t able to properly process and use glucose from the food you eat. There are different types of Diabetes, each with causes, but they all share the common problem of having too much glucose in your bloodstream. Treatments include medications and/or insulins. Some types of diabetes can be prevented by adopting a healthy lifestyle.
What is diabetes?
Diabetes happens when your body isn’t able to take up sugar (glucose) into its cells and use it for energy. This results in a build up of extra sugar in your bloodstream.
Poorly controlled can lead to serious consequences, causing damage to a wide range of your body’s organs and tissues – including your heart, kidneys, eyes and nerves.
Why is my blood glucose level high? How does this happen?
The process of digestion includes breaking down the food you eat into various different nutrient sources. When you eat carbohydrates (for example, bread, rice, pasta), your body breaks this down into sugar (glucose). When glucose is in your bloodstream, it needs help – a “key” – to get into its final destination where it’s used, which is inside your body’s cells (cells make up your body’s tissues and organs). This help or “key” is insulin.
Insulin is a hormone made by your pancreas, an organ located behind your stomach. Your pancreas releases insulin into your bloodstream. Insulin acts as the “key” that unlocks the cell wall “door,” which allows glucose to enter your body’s cells. it provides the “fuel” or energy tissues and organs need to properly function.
If you have :
Your pancreas doesn’t make any insulin or enough insulin.
Your pancreas makes insulin but your body’s cells don’t respond to it and can’t use it as it normally should.
If glucose can’t get into your body’s cells, it stays in your bloodstream and your blood glucose level rises.
What are the different types?
The types are:
Type 1 : This type is an autoimmune disease, meaning your body attacks itself. In this case, the insulin-producing cells in your pancreas are destroyed. Up to 10% of people who have diabetes have Type 1. It’s usually diagnosed in children and young adults (but can develop at any age). It was once better known as “juvenile” . People with Type 1 need to take insulin every day. This is why it is also called insulin-dependent.
Type 2 : With this type, your body either doesn’t make enough insulin or your body’s cells don’t respond normally to the insulin. This is the most common type. Up to 95% of people with have Type 2. It usually occurs in middle-aged and older people. Other common names for Type 2 include adult-onset it and insulin-resistant diabetes. Your parents or grandparents may have called it “having a touch of sugar.”
Prediabetes : This type is the stage before Type 2. Your blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be officially diagnosed with Type 2.
Gestational : This type develops in some women during their pregnancy. Gestational usually goes away after pregnancy. However, if you have gestational you’re at higher risk of developing Type 2 later on in life.
Less common types include:
Monogenic syndromes : These are rare inherited forms of diabete accounting for up to 4% of all cases. Examples are neonatal and maturity-onset diabete of the young.
Cystic fibrosis-related diabete : This is a form of diabete specific to people with this disease.
Drug or chemical-induced diabete : Examples of this type happen after organ transplant, following HIV/AIDS treatment or are associated with glucocorticoid steroid use.
it insipidus is a distinct rare condition that causes your kidneys to produce a large amount of urine.
How common is diabetes?
Some 34.2 million people of all ages – about 1 in 10 – have diabete in the U.S. Some 7.3 million adults aged 18 and older (about 1 in 5) are unaware that they have insulin-dependent (just under 3% of all U.S. adults). The number of people who are diagnosed with insulin-dependent increases with age. More than 26% of adults age 65 and older (about 1 in 4) have diabete.
Who gets diabetes? What are the risk factors?
Factors that increase your risk differ depending on the type you ultimately develop.
Risk factors for Type 1 include:
- Having a family history (parent or sibling) of Type 1.
- Injury to the pancreas(such as by infection, tumor, surgery or accident).
- Presence of autoantibodies(antibodies that mistakenly attack your own body’s tissues or organs).
- Physical stress(such as surgery or illness).
- Exposure to illnesses caused by viruses.
Risk factors for prediabetes and Type 2 include:
- Family history (parent or sibling) of prediabetes or Type 2.
- Being African-American, Hispanic, Native American, Asian-American race or Pacific Islander.
- Being overweight.
- Having high blood pressure.
- Having low HDL cholesterol (the “good” cholesterol) and high triglyceride level.
- Being physically inactive.
- Being age 45 or older.
- Having gestational or giving birth to a baby weighing more than 9 pounds.
- Having polycystic ovary syndrome.
- Having a history of heart disease or stroke.
- Being a smoker.
Risk factors for gestational include:
- Family history (parent or sibling) of prediabetes or Type 2 .
- Being African-American, Hispanic, Native American or Asian-American.
- Being overweight before your pregnancy.
- Being over 25 years of age.
Are there other treatment options for diabetes?
Yes. There are two types of transplantations that might be an option for a select number of patients who have Type 1 . A pancreas transplant is possible. However, getting an organ transplant requires taking immune-suppressing drugs for the rest of your life and dealing with the side effects of these drugs. However, if the transplant is successful, you’ll likely be able to stop taking insulin.
Another type of transplant is a pancreatic islet transplant. In this transplant, clusters of islet cells (the cells that make insulin) are transplanted from an organ donor into your pancreas to replace those that have been destroyed.
Another treatment under research for Type 1 is immunotherapy. Since Type 1 is an immune system disease, immunotherapy holds promise as a way to use medication to turn off the parts of the immune system that cause Type 1 disease.
Bariatric surgery is another treatment option that’s an indirect treatment. Bariatric surgery is an option if you have Type 2 , are obese (body mass index over 35) and considered a good candidate for this type of surgery. Much improved blood glucose levels are seen in people who have lost a significant amount of weight.
Of course other medications are prescribed to treat any existing health problems that contribute to increasing your risk of developing . These conditions include high blood pressure, high cholesterol and other heart-related diseases.
Can prediabetes, Type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes be prevented?
Although insulin-dependent risk factors like family history and race can’t be changed, there are other risk factors that you do have some control over. Adopting some of the healthy lifestyle habits listed below can improve these modifiable risk factors and help to decrease your chances of getting insulin-dependent:
- Eat a healthy diet, such as the Mediterranean or Dash diet. Keep a food diary and calorie count of everything you eat. Cutting 250 calories per day can help you lose ½ pound per week.
- Get physically active. Aim for 30 minutes a day at least five days a week. Start slow and work up to this amount or break up these minutes into more doable 10 minute segments. Walking is great exercise.
- Lose weight if you are overweight. Don’t lose weight if you are pregnant, but check with your obstetrician about healthy weight gain during your pregnancy.
- Lower your stress. Learn relaxation techniques, deep breathing exercises, mindful meditation, yoga and other helpful strategies.
- Limit alcohol intake. Men should drink no more than two alcoholic beverages a day; women should drink no more than one.
- Get an adequate amount of sleep (typically 7 to 9 hours).
- Quit smoking.
- Take medications – to manage existing risk factors for heart disease (e.g., high blood pressure, cholesterol) or to reduce the risk of developing Type 2 – as directed by your healthcare provider.
- If you think you have symptoms, see your provider.
Can Type 1 be prevented?
No. Type 1 insulin-dependent is an autoimmune disease, meaning your body attacks itself. Scientists aren’t sure why someone’s body would attack itself. Other factors may be involved too, such as genetic changes. click here
Can the long-term complications of diabetes be prevented?
Chronic complications are responsible for most illness and death associated with it. Chronic complications usually appear after several years of elevated blood sugars (hyperglycemia). Since patients with Type 2 may have elevated blood sugars for several years before being diagnosed, these patients may have signs of complications and take
Glucobay M 25 mg Tablet at the time of diagnosis.
The complications have been described earlier in this article. Although the complications can be wide ranging and affect many organ systems, there are many basic principles of prevention that are shared in common. These include:
- Take your medications (pills and/or insulin) as prescribed by your doctor.
- Take all of your other medications to treat any risk factors (high blood pressure, high cholesterol, other heart-related problems and other health conditions) as directed by your doctor.
- Monitor your blood sugars closely.
- Follow a healthy diet, such as the Mediterranean or Dash diet. Do not skip meals.
- Exercise regularly, at least 30 minutes five days a week.
- Lose weight if you are overweight.
- Keep yourself well-hydrated (water is your best choice).
- Quit smoking, if you smoke.
- See your doctor regularly to monitor your and to watch for complications.